High School Dual Enrollment Courses: Do They Mean College Credit? Essay Sample

Last week, the Loudoun County public school’s website posted a link to a page with an explanation of what dual enrollment is. According to this website, grades that students receive taking these high school courses will be grades on their college transcript. College courses, therefore, are considered the beginning of their college transcript.

In other words, if a student passes a dual-enrollment course, he or she will get credit toward a college degree. However, a report published by Virginia’s Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission in 2017, clarifies this situation. According to this report, there are particular dual enrollment courses that give students such opportunities, but it doesn’t work with all of them. Now many students who were told that dual enrollment has numerous advantages over International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement, are confused. The thing is that they can get credit passing courses sponsored by colleges, and this credit is taken into account only by these colleges.

According to Loudoun County schools spokesman Wayde Byard, all dual-enrollment courses available in this district assure credit at Northern Virginia Community College. This is not what many people consider college credit, because it doesn’t mean credit toward a four-year degree. Academic departments of colleges are now deciding which two-year credits to accept in the future.

We didn’t find mentioning of this fact on another Loudoun school’s website. It says that they guarantee dual-enrollment credit and a college transcript. Such promises are also repeated several times in their PowerPoint presentation. One must read 13 pages to finally find a warning that transfer depends on four-year schools and not all credits are equal, in fact, this means that there is no guarantee you will get credit for your efforts.

The Executive Director of the National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships Adam Lowe states that there are 2.3 million students who are taking dual-enrollment courses. Comparing to the previous year, the number of these students grew by 7%. Thus, parents and students really need to learn more about these courses.

Some officials notice that the popularity of such courses in different schools varies. The authors of the Virginia report interviewed officials at 16 colleges. They noticed that it was hard to ensure the quality of dual-enrollment courses. Many high schools have chosen to blend courses so that those who take dual-enrollment courses and other students can take the same courses. According to the report, these are rather bad conditions for maintaining college rigor.

The state provides guidelines for those who are going to teach dual-enrollment classes in order for them to ensure college credits. These teachers must hold a graduate degree in the subject, or at least a graduate degree in any field and 18 graduate credits in their subject. Most of the high school teachers don’t meet these requirements.

Thus, community colleges have created various dual-enrollment courses that don’t offer any credits at the sponsoring college. They just teach subjects that are the most popular among high school students, increasing revenues for colleges.

Northern Virginia Community College is focused on monitoring Loudoun’s dual-enrollment courses. According to their information, teachers in their district have all required credentials, and there are no blended classes.

Given that college departments have different rules, there is a chance that students who have good IB and AP test scores also won’t receive credit. However, IB and AP officials don’t promote credits. Unlike many dual-enrollment courses, they also have difficult final exams which are created and graded by independent experts. Many AP teachers who have experience in teaching dual enrollment noticed considerably lower standards.

After Loudoun school officials received a copy of this article, they changed the mentioned statement on their website. Now it says that the number of credits that students earn depends on a university or college.

Dual enrollment is developing constantly, and it grows fast, so such a decision is rather a good move. School districts must realize how important it is to provide college students with relevant information on what college credits are.

Essay on Jungian Psychology and Theories of Drunvalo Melchizadek

Human genetic code consists of 44 chromosomes, divided into 22 pairs. Another two chromosomes determine our gender. However, some people may have more or less chromosomes, and there are many diseases determined by the number of chromosomes and other genetic abnormalities. What consequences such abnormalities lead to? How genetic code changes our bodies and consciousness? A well-known metaphysicist, Drunvalo Melchizadek tried to find some answers to these questions.

He stated that there are three types of humans, who perceive the same reality, but do it in three different ways. First type is characterized by a chromosome combination 42+2. They perceive the whole universe as a part of themselves. They cannot separate themselves from their environment, and feel all of creation as an energy that takes different forms. Like cells of a single body, they are parts of the same consciousness. Some native tribes in Australia and Africa used to live this way. Another type is determined by formula 44+2. This is a normal genetic type, and according to Melchizadek, we are the most dangerous and unstable type of human beings. These two chromosomes ruin all balance and make normal people dangerous to nature and even to themselves. However, Melchizadek points out the importance of such a kind of people, who are a transitional stage between 42+2, and 46+2 types.

Perception of the whole of creation as one correlates with many spiritual beliefs. The whole reality is just a kind of a big body, where people are cells. However, in the modern world, there are no people with required genetic formula.

According to Melchizadek, normal people with 44 chromosomes are unstable. He considers this genetic type as a step on the road to 46+2 formula. We have an individual consciousness, but we cannot collaborate with each other effectively. Our humanity suffers from wars, ignorance, and violence of any kind. This theory states that all this evil is just a result of our genetic code, which creates an imbalance in our perception. Melchizadek states that the only way out of this state is a further genetic evolution.

The next evolutionary step is represented by genetic formula 46+2. Melchizadek states that this kind of people will represent a mass of individuals who also are able to function as one. It’s a unity of separated beings.

Melchizadek builds his theory based on the “unity consciousness”. He draws an analogy with cells in human body, where every cell has its particular function, but all cells together are just details of a single being. He says that this type of organization will help us get rid of misunderstanding, wars, and violence. In his opinion, the cell structure of humanity is the most effective life form, and the highest stage in the evolution.

Christians may interpret such a theory according to Christian traditions. In this case, people become closer to God or Christ. All people are just parts of the body of Christ, and Christ is an organism as a whole. Therefore, people get global understanding of the universe, so there is no violence, pain, or ignorance no more. Another Christians tend to interpret such a theory as the Kingdom of Heaven, the final structure and the main purpose of any existence.

There is a big question, which is how we should move from 44+2 to 46+2? This question implies understanding of how we can jump from our stage of imperfect human beings to a new stage, where we are something much greater and smarter. We analyzed elements of Jungian psychology, and decided to illustrate such an issue on the example of the Tool song, which is called “Forty-Six & 2”.

Maynard builds his thoughts based on the concept of changes that come “through my shadow”. According to Jungian psychology, our minds are separated on two parts, which are the shadow and the ego (animus and anima).

This theory states that males have feminine traits (anima), which are suppressed deeply in our psychological structure. Just like males, females have certain muscular traits (animus) inside their psychological structure. Even though these things are buried deeply in our subconscious, they have an impact on our thoughts and actions all the time. First of all, we are always looking for an opportunity to project these traits on somebody else. Men are trying to project their anima on women, and vice versa. This process is exactly what determines our feeling of “love at the first sight”. We shouldn’t know a person good to project these traits on him or her, since animus and anima automatically form our feelings. These mystique structures also often appear in our dreams, as male or female guiding figures. We can also say that, in the opposite sex, we search for such things that we suppress in ourselves.

On the other hand, we all have the ego, which is a conscious part of our minds. We build this structure during our lives, at the same time getting rid of unnecessary tendencies that we consider “not ourselves”. All these rejected things form another part of our consciousness, which is called counter-ego.

When we meet a person who represents some of our rejected values, traits, and feelings, we often feel anxiousness, annoyance, or anger. In our dreams, these shadow structures often appear in the form of a person of the opposite gender. The shadow has a lot of power over us, since it’s critical to our personal development, and it is capable of affecting our self-esteem and actions. The shadow consists of all things that we fear or try to ignore. It also may suggest us, what we must change about ourselves, to move forward.

Maynard points out the importance of embracing this shadow part of our nature, in order to move on the next stage of evolution. He writes about accepting all rejected traits and learning how to live with them in peace. Describing such a difficult process, he uses such words as “kill”, “die”, and “cry”, as well as “learn”, “grow”, and “move”.

Many metaphysical theories were reflected in New Age art. Tool band uses these theories and creates many deep songs, such as “Schism”, “Stinkfist”, “Parabola”, and “Pushit”. This band never set easy understanding as their main goal, paying special attention to sophisticated lyrics, and even symbolic album artworks. We already mentioned their song “Forty-Six & Two”, so let’s take a closer look at the Aenima album and its cover. The first thing we see is a light burst at the center of the picture, there are also many eyes looking at you. Tool once again said exactly what they mean, without saying anything particular. They push us to look wider, to look at something that is inaccessible for those eyes. Talking about the psychological shadow, this cover represents how we understand a part of it, without access to the shadow as a whole. This band pushes us to open the box and discover all hidden truth recorded on the CD.

Maynard suggests to “listen to muscle memory”, and to try to find a way to our hidden personalities. Thing that are hidden in our shadows are obvious and simple. We just need to step inside this shadow and keep our eyes wide open, to not miss a thing.

Hussan Al-Banna and the Muslim Brotherhood Essay

During the last 80 years, the Muslim Brotherhood, also known as the Society of Muslim Brothers, played a significant role in Egyptian politics. This society was established in 1928, in Ismailia. Hassan al-Banna defined their goal as a resumption of the Caliphate. They focused on implementing Sharia law as the main law for everyone. This movement quickly spread from Egypt to other Islamic states, where the Muslim Brothers gained a significant political power. As for Egypt, this society created a lot of challenges for the modern country.

Hassan al-Banna was born in Al-Behaira, Egypt, in 1906. He was raised in a traditional middle-class family. His father was an imam; he worked as an instructor in the Hanbali rite. He also wrote many books about Islam, and was teaching at the local madrasah. Along with that, he owned his business. In his shop, he sold phonographs and repaired watches. Even though he and his wife had certain property, they have never been rich; moreover, they constantly struggled for life and tried to make things work. In 1924, they moved to Cairo and realized that Islamic education is no longer as important in the capital, and small business cannot compete with big corporations anymore.

Hassan al-Banna’s religious and leadership skills developed during the early childhood. When he was 12 years old, he joined the Sufi order. At the age of thirteen, he was involved in revolution against British rule, which took place in 1919. A year after, he memorized Quran. He always was interested in the most xenophobic and extremist features of Islam. Especially, he was focused on women’s rights. Since the secondary school, he and his friends organized a number of events devoted to Islamic issues. They discussed a Middle East conflict, Islamic laws and British impact. Their rhetoric was a part of the reaction to the collapse of the Muslim Caliphate, as well as to the end of the Ottoman Empire, and the British occupation. They wanted to replace Western values with traditional Arab laws, and strengthen Islam in all aspects of Egyptian life.

In Cairo, al-Banna joined a number of Islamic educational organizations. A short time later, he realized that such a peaceful kind of activity cannot bring the power of Islam back. He organized people from different universities and organized a number of activities in public places. Students started praying in mosques an in front of people on streets. They wanted to make Islam a part of a public life again, and involve more people in such a process.

In 1927, he graduated and started teaching grammar in a small town. Along with his school, this town also hosted headquarters of a huge European corporation. Along with major European community, a lot of poor Muslim workers worked in the Suez Canal Company, and they formed a strong basis for al-Banna’s ideas. He criticized European lifestyle, saying that liberal laws are dangerous and unacceptable for Muslims. In 1928, his first followers inspired him to create the Society of the Muslim Brethren.

Hassan al-Banna, just like many other Muslims, considered the end of the Caliphate as a catastrophe of Muslim civilization, and they haven’t found anything better than blaming Western countries for that. Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in order to strike back and stop Western influence on Egypt. However, there were a lot of such organizations in Egypt, and many people pointed out the significance of following Sharia laws and reforming moral base of Egypt. The Brotherhood considered Islam as not just religious rules and moral principles, but as a whole lifestyle, therefore focusing its members on political and social aspects of Islam. Every member should be personally engaged in religion and in the process of reformation. They said that their only leader is Allah, and their only constitution is Quran. They openly promoted Jihad as the only way of life, and the death for Allah as the only reason to live. Al-Banna considered fundamental Islam as the only right kind of Islam, arguing that many Muslims are influenced by Western civilization, and Islam must dominate the social life of all Arabs.

Obviously, despite the religious background, the Brotherhood was a social and political movement. They created different social incentives in order to protect working class from foreign business, especially major monopolies. They participated in building hospitals, schools, and other social institutions.

Al-Banna set the key goals of the Brotherhood as fighting against Western lifestyle, and returning traditional Islamic values. He considered ancient rules as the only right way for Arabic society, so he addressed his speeches to wide audience of teachers, medics, social workers, and managers. He pointed out such sensitive issues as colonialism, inequality, Islamic nationalism and Middle East conflict. Along with it, he was quite sympathetic to the radical European ideologies, such as fascism and Marxism.

Number of members of al-Banna’s organization grew from 800 in 1936, up to 200,000 in 1938. The main reason was a situation in Palestine. The Brotherhood kept building social institutions and educating people about Islam. In later 1930’s, there were more than 500,000 members of the Brotherhood. More and more people registered in more than 2,000 branches in different Arab countries. Robin Hallett notes that the success of the Brotherhood was determined by Pan-Islamic ideology. Finally, their headquarters become a center of Islamic world. Students and activists from different countries met in Cairo, implementing new incentives and strategies. In 1940, there were more than a million members of the Brotherhood; this organization opened new offices in Transjordan, Lebanon and Syria.

If in the early 1930’s al-Banna was focused on social issues and religious revivalism, now he paid all his attention to the restoration of the Caliphate. He stated that this goal can be achieved only through Jihad, which attracted even more members. Al-Banna’s speeches were focused on hell and pain for sinners and heretics. He said that Muslims must return to their roots and follow all rues of Quran. His key thesis was Jihad against Kafir (non-Muslim people), as well as establishment of a new Caliphate. He also expressed all his ideas in a dissertation called “The Way of Jihad”.

First of all, al-Banna considered Jihad as a part of a defensive strategy. He said that Jihad will protect Muslims and embrace Islam. According to al-Banna, Muslim community was constantly attacked by Western world, so they needed to strike back and get rid of “unbelievers” who influenced many Muslim countries. He paid special attention to individual engagement, saying that every Muslim must make his contribution to Jihad, using all possible sources. He said that God will give Muslims a sign, so they could understand when and how their goal will be accomplished.

In his Five Tracts of Hassan al-Banna, he writes about Hanafi-rules and points out the significance of Jihad in all forms. He writes that every Muslim must put maximal effort in Jihad, killing the unbelievers, beating and raping them, destroying their homes and churches. He states that Muslims should fight the unbelievers right after the invitation to accept Islam as the only right religion, killing them, even if they don’t fight back.

Al-Banna started his terrorist activity during the events of 1936-1939 years in Palestine, which were called the Arab revolt. At the same time, a supreme leader of Muslims, Grand Mufti Hajj Amin al-Husseini, called all Muslims for Jihad against Jews and Britain. The Brotherhood organized an underground network of members who stole weapons, provided terrorist activity and formed assassination squads. They had many supporters in the police and army, who supported their terrorist activity and provided them with necessary information.

Many documents from American, British, and Nazi German archives confirm that members of the Brotherhood actively collaborated with Nazis, agitating against Britain, organizing sabotage, and receiving aid from Nazis. They started collaborating during the 1930’s, and continued supporting each other during the World War II.

Nazis and the Brotherhood found common interests easily, since both of them wanted to destroy the Jews. At the same time, both of them realized that transformation of their ideas is impossible in a nation-state. These ideologies can be called somewhat anti-nationalist, since they have been looking for a bigger, universal community. For the Brotherhood, it was a community of Muslims, and for Nazis it was a master race. Collaboration between radical Muslims and Nazi Germany started as an underground chain of events, but then developed to the official stage. Members of the Brotherhood translated Mein Kampf, which in Arabic sounded like “My Jihad”. This fact made Muslims even closer to a Nazi ideology. Al-Banna’s followers also published a lot of other Nazi literature, translated Der Sturmer and shared anti-Semitic cartoons, where Jews were represented as demons and enemies of Allah.

When United Nations started considering the Palestinian issue, Amin al-Husseini and al-Banna rose up against the creation of Israel, even though the UN resolution included an Arab state besides the Jewish state. Al-Banna said about the world conspiracy ruled by Jews, and urged Muslims to kill Jews in Palestine.

In 1948, police found documents that illustrated how military wing of the Brotherhood, called “secret apparatus”, planed a series of assassinations and bombings. Some of these events took place later, and thirty two leaders of the Brotherhood were arrested.

In Egypt, Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha studied information about activity of the Brotherhood members, directed against Egyptian government. Considering the growing popularity of this organization, he banned it and included the Brotherhood in the list of outlawed groups, in 1948. Many members of the Brotherhood were arrested during next three weeks, and then, on December 28, young student Abdel Meguid Ahmed Hassan killed the Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha. Al-Banna immediately condemned this act, saying that terrorism is an unacceptable form of Jihad.

However, his words haven’t convinced the Egyptian government, so in 1949, al-Banna with his followers were in their headquarters in Cairo, waiting for a representative from the government. Al-Banna should meet Minister Zaki Ali Basha at 5 o’clock, on February 12. He waited for a few hours and then decided to take a taxi. Two men shot al-Banna seven times, and he died in a hospital.

A lot of Muslim Brothers were executed and imprisoned, but other members continued to spread their ideas in Egypt and other Arab countries. Sayyid Qutb became a new leader of this movement, stating that Quran approves any sorts of violence against unbelievers. He focused on fighting against non-Islamic countries where Muslims live. He said about importance of destroying Western values, and so formed an ideological basis for many radical Islamic groups, such as al Qaeda. He studied in the United States in 1949, often speaking about the American culture, and how dangerous it is for Muslims. Then he returned back in Egypt, where he led the Muslim Brotherhood and urged people to fight against non-Islamic countries. In 1964, many members of the Brotherhood were amnestied due to the President Gamal Nasser’s resolution. Right after that, he faced three assassination attempts from members of the Brotherhood. In 1966, almost all leaders of the organization were executed for anti-government activity. Many others tried to escape the country, but were arrested and imprisoned instead.

Next president of Egypt, Anwar-as-Sadat promised that he’s going to implement Sharia law as the main Egyptian law. Just like his predecessor, he released many members of the Muslim Brotherhood from prisons. This fact initiated a short-term peace between the Egyptian government and the Muslim Brotherhood, but this peace couldn’t last long. As soon as a peaceful agreement between Egypt and Israel was signed in 1979, the Muslim Brotherhood resumed their attempts to fight the government, since they still supported Palestinians, based on Pan-Islamic ideas. In 1981, Anwar Sadat was assassinated by the Muslim Brotherhood during the victory parade in Cairo.

Members of the Muslim Brotherhood joined many other terrorist organizations. Different Muslim unions supported different methods of Jihad, but all of them were united by the common goal. Such societies openly promote violence as a key to building an Islamic State, focusing on promotion of Islam among “infidels”, and on fighting against them as well. Nowadays the Muslim Brotherhood denies any involvement in terrorist activity, but most security organizations all over the world consider this union as an underground terrorist organization, or at least a supporter of terrorism. Despite that, the United States haven’t included the Muslim Brotherhood in the list of terrorist organizations, unlike HAMAS or IJG (Islamic Jihad Group).

We mentioned these two organizations, because their founders were members of the Muslim Brotherhood, promoting methods of extreme violence against non-Islamic governments and unbelievers. In 1976, Egyptian Parliamentary Elections led to formation of several groups based on the Muslim Brotherhood community. The reason is that Anwar Sadad never considered the Brotherhood a political structure, so members of this organization should run as members of the ruling party (it was called Arab Socialist Union), or as independent candidates. In total, members of the Muslim Brotherhood occupied 15 seats, six of them were also members of the ruling party, and nine of them were independents. Many members of the Brotherhood were resent that some brothers collaborate with the government, so the militant brothers decided to create several new organizations, such as Mukfirtiya, Jund Allah, Munnazamat al Jihad, and Al Takfir wa al Hijra. Translated in English, these names mean “Denouncers of Infidel”, “Soldiers of God”, “The Jihad Organization”, and “The Denunciation of Infidels and the Migration”, respectively.

The Islamic Jihad Group became one of the biggest organizations. It was founded by members of the Muslim Brotherhood, who weren’t satisfied by official responses of the Egyptian government to the Palestinian conflict. Generally, the Brotherhood was looking for the gradual development of the Islamic government, implementing more Islamic principles in politics. Many members of the organization didn’t like such a peaceful approach, considering terrorism as the only way to build an Islamic State. They found many like minds and founded the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.

Another terrorist organization, HAMAS, was founded by members of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1987. Their leader, Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, developed this movement as a wing of the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine. In 1988, they officially broke away from the Brotherhood, and in 2006 they won Palestinian Authority’s general legislative elections. Now it’s the biggest and the most powerful militant organization in Palestine. Their main goal is to destroy Israel, and build an Islamic State instead. They are well-known for a lot of violent acts, including suicide bombings.

Since members of the Muslim Brotherhood have been arrested and hunted in Egypt throughout its history, a lot of them have settled in Europe, America, Africa and Middle East. They are mostly focused on helping Palestinians and converting non-Muslims. On the one hand, the Brotherhood has changed its approaches, trying to present itself in a more peaceful context. Their leaders consider it necessary to gain more acceptance and influence in different countries. On the other hand, financial networks of the Brotherhood participate in funding and arming radical Islamic organizations all over the world. Members of this organization still promote the idea of the worldwide Islamic State, a Caliphate. This goal makes this organization appreciated by almost all Sunni terrorist organizations in the world.

History of Management Thought – Paper Sample

History of Management Thought


History plays a very important part in the current world and understanding history helps define the future. Therefore, learning and understanding the mode of management in the past would help in coming up with the best ways and modes of managing the current institutions. The history of management dates back in early 1800,s where the evolution and determination in the manner in which the people could get governed within any formal institution. That developed with time as better and more complex means and strategies of management cropped up and ensured efficiency and smart way of managing and ensuring that different firms engage the employees in the best manner.

With the development of the historical management, their developed new concepts, and strategies that would define better the manner in which managers relate to their junior employees and ensure maximum output of the organization. The historical management thought brought about the idea in the change of culture, quality control, and the healthy measure at the workplace hence the continuous change in the mode of management. Therefore the thought brought forward several stages that would get engaged to define the manner in which the management kept evolving till the modern era. That would include the classical theory of management, bureaucratic management theory, and the human relations movements. The three theories played a vital role in the understanding of the history of the thought in management. Therefore, the paper would explore and bring out the understanding of the thought in the history of management.
According to Kahl, et al (8), management refers to the coordination and organization of the activities that any organization would engage in order to meet the goals and objectives of the business. Management hence becomes important in the production, marketing and distribution of the products and services that an organization would produce to the target market. Therefore, management would involve planning, directing, making policies and ensuring that they achieve the specific objectives that the organization sets. ‘Management history’ refers to that stage in time when the history of the management developed over time including the practices that were conducted (Hole 19). However, with the development of new and varied ways in the management styles, they all remain the same with the only change of names to suit the current environment and the organizations that would employ such techniques. The development of the management of history developed significantly under the following three theories.

Scientific Management Theory

The theory, also known as Taylorism got proposed by Frederick Taylor in the year 1909. Taylor took time and studied the manner in which work got accomplished as he studied the scientific process of how work got done. In his study together with his friends, Taylor explored the manner in which work get done and the manner in which the same affected the productivity of the employees. The philosophy got premised on the assumption that pushing the employees to work as much as they could not sufficiently and efficiently as ensuring that the employer optimizes the manner in which their duties could get accomplished. Therefore, in 1909 Taylor proposed that to ensure that increased productivity gets experienced within an institution, they required to simplify their jobs and ensure they optimize on the employees through what they engage in their daily operations. However, in doing so the managers and employees of an organization need to work hand in hand with one another to ensure maximum production (Chiu, 35).
The proposals brought forward by Taylor proved unique and different from the manner in which business hot conducted during that era. At that point in time, there existed little contact between the employees and the managers who left the employees to work on their own and produce that product for their target markets. Tylor believed that employees got motivated by money hence proposing the idea of ‘a good day’s pay for a relatively a good day’s work.’ Therefore, that meant that workers could get paid depending on the type of work that they accomplish in a single day. Given the fact that employees get motivated by money they could work extra hard to earn the extra cash for a single day’s work (Sheldrake, 28).
The principle of scientific management proposed by Taylor got premised on four contingent principals. The principals help in the better understanding and working on the theory and they include the avoidance of the use of force, common sense and the ability to do any work and employ the scientific systems where the employer would study the work process (Agarwal 48). When doing so, they would get the opportunity to get and determine the most efficient ways of getting tasks and duties accomplished within the organization with minimum resources. That would enable maximum output with minimum resources hence the increase in profit margins. Workers could also get subjected to specific duties within the organization based on their abilities and talents rather than just assigning tasks to employees. Such a move would allow for the training of employees hence getting the best from the employees and profits to the organization.
When allocating work to the employees, it remains necessary to assign work to the managers so that they continue planning and organization as the employees carry out their tasks freely. That would ensure concentration on the duties that each individual carries out hence efficiency and accountability on the work that the employers and employees do. The employer needs to provide direction by giving direction, instructions and supervision that would ensure the managers and employees get to work in the most efficient and proper manner to ensure that the organizations run on a profit continually (Cole 65).
The theory assumed that the continuous viewpoints within an organization got differing perspectives but do not replace each other. Such views could differ on the manner and direction of the organization’s goals, the behavior of individuals, varying issues facing an organization and how such issues could get solved.

Strengths of the theory

The theory could prove useful to the specific employees and to the society because of the following reasons like better and unique ways of utilizing of resources through the scientific method hence increased profit margins to the organization. Therefore, training and selection of employees ensure a better workforce hence efficiency on the work done.
The target market would get better and improved products at reduced costs as there stands increased productivity through proper utilization of the available resources. Scientific methods allow for the use of technology and promote technological development hence improved living standards of the people who receive better products and services (Morgan 91).

Limitations of the theory

The theory focuses on the best way of doing things rather than focusing on the entire organization. Such a system would remain effective to smaller organizations as they would not fit the complex organizations that exist in the modern era. The theory also focuses on the performance of an individual and neglects the effort done by a group in accomplishing any given task. The efficiency of the theory remains in doubt as it categorizes the employees of an organization as either ineffective or effective employees.
Employees would lack creativity while performing their individual duties as they get developed under their specific managers have attracted a lot of frustrations. As it concentrates on the specialization of duties to increase productivity, monotony breaks in as people engage in a single activity hence they would find their work boring which would eventually affect their output (Morgan 123). The more people engage in their duties to make money, they would not develop their human resource system rather lose out on money as that would remain the only driving force of the employees.

Bureaucratic Management Theory

The theory got proposed by Max Weber, a political economist, and a German sociologist. It consists of two important elements that include clearly defining the rules that would assist in governing the members of an organization and the structure of hierarchy that an organization implements. Weber, in his theory, proposed a system that could get based on the standardized procedures and a well-defined protocol of command (Roussel, et al. 87). Theory stresses on efficiency, however, the theory throws a caution on over emphasizing on technology and technological factors at the dire expense of the emotions that the employees or the target market. Bureaucracy, therefore, refers to the different ways of managing life in social institutions that incorporate patterns, procedures, rules and regulations that would enhance the simplification of the functioning of a complex institution (Kessler 14).
The theory got based on six vital principals that define the manner in which the theory works in the contemporary society. The principals include the formation of a formal hierarchical structure. The theory proposed that every control in the hierarchy gets controlled by the other level above it (Roussel, et al. 36). That form of governing allowed on the basis of a central planning and every decision made within the organization could get done centrally. Therefore. The decisions made within the organization need consulting and making consultative decisions that would benefit the organization.
The different institutions could engage in their activities and functions based on their specialty. The theory proposed that any work done within the organization would get done by specialists that the organization employs hence allowed the categorizing of and placing the employees in smaller units based on the type of work that they do and the skills acquired. That would allow the employees to engage in their work based on their skills and knowledge and ensure that they produce and provide the best services to the market. The theory got developed between 1930 and 1950 proposed that organizations established comprehensive measures for all the routinized task of the organization (Kessler 43).
The theory proposed the system of management by rules, the rules which were made at the top level of management. In such a case, all the rules that could get seceded on and decided by the top level management, it could get executed and followed keenly by all the lower levels of the company. The move allowed for proper direction and called for the execution of duties without questioning hence the workforce remaining on the same page. The institutions under the theory could carry well-defined mission statements that could define the manner in which they would engage in their work. When the mission of the organizations remained ‘in-focused,’ it meant that they would serve themselves in having high-profit margins, the free flow of cash, market share, the target audience (Kessler 78). If the mission got defined as ‘up-focused,’ the organization could then concentrate on serving the shareholders, the board, the financiers of the organization and the stockholders.
The theory allowed for the employment of new staff based on their technical qualifications and the need for the organization. Therefore, every employee and the clients of the company ought to get fair and equal treatment without prejudice hence employees should not get subjected towards personal or individual difference. The above six principles gave a wide and open approach towards the bureaucratic system of management.

Strengths of the theory

The theory allowed for the central authority, therefore, making it effective in organizing in the organization. The formation of hierarchy in the organization ensured the effectiveness in the management of managing an institution. As it allowed for hierarchy and a chain of command, there developed specific tasks for different people in their department because of the specialized skills that different employees have in the organization. That allowed the clear check on the manner in which junior employees engaged in their specific duties (Hales 47). With that continued trend with strict measures of carrying out duties, it would allow for good and proper policies that would enable effective management of an organization.
The use of standard operating procedures under the theory got emphasized. The theory believed that the formalized rules would encourage predictability of the desired results towards an organization. The managers and junior employees would follow strictly the instruction they get, hence the easy determination of the output that the firm would anticipate having all other factors at constant. Therefore, with that kind of predictability, any output would remain in range and proper planning for the same would remain ideal.
Under the theory, it allowed for merit when hiring new employees or promoting the already employed individuals. Such a move would always ensure that qualified individuals with the desired skills and knowledge occupy the offices hence increasing the output of an organization (Hales 55). Therefore, by using the theory it would play a vital role when making policies of the organization. When the management gets the opinion and gets down to formulating policies and ideals for the organization, they would likely come up with the best policies for the institution.
When hiring professionals and individual with the right experience in doing their work, they would likely accomplish their work effectively. Moreover, bureaucrats have the required training and skills that would enable individuals to completely engage in their work. As people employed would bear the required knowledge and skills in doing their work, on most occasions, they would always provide solutions to the challenges affecting the institution. The most outstanding precept with the theory remains as its capability that allows no room for favoritism to its employees or towards the clients. Since the need to follow rules and regulations in achieving the goals and objectives of the company could get outlined, favoring a specific individual becomes impossible (Hales 60). That encourages every individual to work and provide the best products for the company to merit any promotion.

Limitations of the theory

Despite having a strong and sensible way of motivating employees, the theory developed weaknesses that included the ability to breed and cause boredom to the employees hence affecting their level of productivity. As employees specialize in doing their work, over time they would get bored doing a repetitive task over a long period of time. With that continued routine of doing the same kind of activity on a daily basis could lead to employees missing their work due to absenteeism hence resulting to low productivity of the organization (Hales 70).
The desire to follow a specific chain of command remains ideal however, such a move could derail the achievement of desired results over a period of time. The need to follow a particular chain in carrying out and implementing duties would at some point delay the accomplishment of duties as some things could require immediate action. Following bureaucracy remains important but could also hamper the manner in which activities and decisions could get accomplished hence affecting the productivity of the organization.
In most cases bureaucracies would lead would lead to inefficiency while performing duties towards the institution. People employed under that plan would employ their skills and techniques in their areas of specialization and would not become productive in the other areas of the organization. Therefore, such individual would only work for their departments and wait for their wages and salaries (Hales 71). Such a move would prove unproductive and demoralize employees especially the civil servants who work under the system governed by bureaucrats.
When employees get subjected to strict rules and regulations as they work, the freedom of such people gets limited and would only work and reason under discernment. That would minimize on the way they engage with their work and the limit on the productivity.
The bureaucracy would become important when practiced with the caution of ensuring that the employees do not get subjected to strict rules and regulations. When that gets observed, the employer would get the best from the employees hence increasing the production of the organization and get increased profit margins.

Human Relation Movement

In 1930,s George Elton Mayo, a sociologist found the human relations movement after carrying out several experiments referred as Hawthorne studies that focused on the link between workplace productivity and the employee satisfaction (Daft and Marcic 68). Therefore, Human relation refers to the entire process of addressing the needs of the employees, training, encouraging the culture at the workplace and the resolving of conflicts between the management and employees or between employees (Gross and Compa 32). In his study, Hawthorne effect brought forward the notion that increased productivity and motivation would get experience when employees get placed in a group or work as a team.
Professor Elton Mayo conducted the Hawthorne studies between 1927 and 1932 in Chicago. In his study, he examined the work conditions provided in an institution and the productivity experienced. The study conducted brought forward the notion that the relationships that existed in an organization on a larger extent influenced the production of an organization. Elton believed that when an individual become part team their performance would get affected by the groups that they associate with.

However, the study played a major role in determining how motivation affected productivity hence the name Hawthorne Effect. Therefore, the human relations movement originated from the studies conducted by Professor Elton Mayo. The findings of the study proposed that employees setting goals and objectives and personal development remained essential to the effective running and management of a business (Haslam 61). Therefore, the movement stressed that motivation that could get affirmative and derived from greater production and team goals resulted from positive reinforcement from employees and encouragement from the management.
Human relations movement remains as the precursor of the modern and functioning human resource functions in the contemporary society. Before the emergence of the movement, employees were treated unfairly and could get easily replaced as their employers’ bases their usefulness based on their production capability. Human relations could get the consideration of an interdisciplinary as it studies the behavior of human beings in an institution and associates its finding with management, sociology, management and communication (Haslam 85). Therefore, it remains as an important field in the study and understanding the manner which employees behave with the changing traits in their workplace.
The major players in the said theory include Follet who brought forward the idea that there remains the continuous engagement of the management in the manner in which other employees carry out their tasks. The continuous work down by the employees would become very vital in the manner in which work would get done and accomplished at the right time. Bernard proposed the idea that organizations stand as social systems where people interact and work together for the common good of the company and their individual aspirations. From the understanding of Bernard, the theory accepted authority in the manner in which tasks would get accomplished and in the right manner. That would allow the employees to get and see the benefits, believe and understand the way the organization moves forward.
Therefore, it would remain important to understand that employees to an organization should get the consideration of social being who get out to work and ensure that the company runs at a profit. Hence they ought to get the respect that they need and not get the consideration that they only get motivated by the money that they receive in return for the work that they do. The management that oversees the daily operations of a firm needs to address the social aspect of their employees hence enabling them to carry out their tasks in a more efficient and the right manner hence making the organization to get increased profit margins. Therefore, the understanding and fulfilling the needs of the employees would ensure that employees remain motivated and engage in their work in a more productive manner.
The theory views the system within an organization as mere machines that carry out their work within an environment provided for them. Such an environment would involve finances, human input and the required information of running the organization. Therefore, a change in one part of the system affects the entire system as they depend on each other in the manner in which they provide the products and services to the target market. The approaches used for the better understanding of the theory include:

Contingency Approach

A theory of management theory that suggested that the most accurate style of management would depend on the existing situation that an organization would encounter and getting one or a rigid style of management would become a disaster I the long term. The theory got developed a management psychologist Fred Fielder with the view of getting the most effective leadership to an institution. The theory reiterates that effective leadership relates entirely to the effectiveness of the group stands as a component of two factors in the organization (Josien 12). The circumstances in an organization and the motivation would determine the way employees would work and consequently the output of the employees. When measuring the motivation of the workers or the relative motivation, the employer would need to use the least preferred co-workers scale. That would enable the employer to understand the manner in which their employees would engage in their work and ensure maximum output.
The theory found on the premise that implies that the relation motivation would become contingent on the basis that the manager would have the capability to have an effect and control the group’s favorable situations. The situations could get determined under three distinct factors that would include the position of power of the manager in any given organization. Under that factor, the manager would get considered based on the manner in which they exercise their authority over their employees. The manager could either reward or punish behavior based on their individual and institutional approach (Josien 34). Therefore, the manager could engage in terminating the employment contracts of employees for any mistake that they cause or provide bonuses for the good work that employees accomplish like meeting targets that they were given.
Leader-member relations could prove important under the contingency approach because such factors would help in the determination of the manager’s viewpoint with the way they relate with their junior employees in the company. Relations remain as an important tool as it would enhance the manner of production and the way different individuals in the organization work together especially the managers and the junior employees (Josien 43). Therefore, it would determine the kind of relationship that exists between employees and their managers if it would provide an ample atmosphere for working and ensuring maximum output using the available resources.
The task structure of an organization plays a pivotal role and gets associated with the structure that exists in an organization. It would determine the kind of structure subject to the procedures of the organization and would heavily rely on the exact measurements. There exist different tasks that a company would engage itself hence the need to classify the easy and complex tasks that need the attention and define the manner in which they would get assessed and accomplished.

Strengths of Human Relations Movement

The theory continues to prove vital in the management of the modern institutions and the well-being of the employees. That resulted from the fact that employees would get recognition and receive appreciation from their managers and employers. Therefore, in such a move of appreciating employees and the work that they do, they would work harder and ensure that they give their best and ensure the organization runs smoothly with increased profits (Gross and Compa 86). When employees get appreciated, they tend to give their best and would work with dedication hence build their self-esteem and would enhance the growth of the brand among the competitors.
The theory proposed a critical and unique aspect that every organization would employ. The improved relationships between the employees and the management remain vital for the success of any organization (Gross and Compa 88). With improved and good relationships between employees and the management, the employees would work freely and get the full backing of the managers hence quality production of their services and products. The development of good relationships would ensure that employees do not get intimidated by their managers hence maintaining the respect and working comfortably without fear and intimidation.
Under the theory, the employee’s welfare and well-being would get taken care of by the employer. That would ensure that employees remain in the best shape and would, therefore, love their work. Employees would get the opportunity to get off days from work, get treatment when they fall sick and even recognized when they do something outstanding for the organization. Therefore, they would always do their best and ensure the organization’s profit margins continue to increase.

Limitations of the Human Relations Movement

Despite having its strengths in the manner in which it would ensure improved and increased profit margins, the theory developed some shortcomings that would affect the way it gets implemented. The limitations of the theory include the strategies set by the organization would mainly get based on the observed behavior against the predictable behavior. Such a move would not prove effective at all time because sometimes behavior in the market changes like the preference of the employees, competitions and the social environment (Gross and Compa 99). With such trends in mind overlooked, the organization would most likely run into losses and consequently affecting the operations of the organization.
The theory advocates for one-way flow of information, from the management to the junior employees of the organization. That oversimplified mode of ensuring the flow of information would prove fatal to the organization given the fact that employees who work for the company have no moral authority of making decisions. Therefore, the probability of the organization making wrong decisions could increase and put the activities and the well-being of the organization in jeopardy.
Given the fact that employees only receive direction on the things that they ought to accomplish, predicting the behavior of employees at their workplaces would prove difficult. That would prove difficult to read and understand the employees given that they do not have an opportunity to speak their mind regarding the running and meeting the targets of the company. Such a move could not enable the employer to understand their employees hence controlling them fully would remain difficult and challenging and consequently could run the business out of competition and out of business (Gross and Compa 102). Therefore, unless the behavior at workplace gets predicted in the right manner, the organization would not perform well and have the finances to ensure that its activities continue and also meet the needs of the employees.


Management remains a vital tool in the society today and understanding how it developed from the early days would enable the current managers to effectively manage their institutions. From the early days of 1890,s when the scientific management theory got developed than the bureaucratic management in 1930,s to the human relations movement, management continues to evolve with the current systems to suit the people in the digital era. However, the management styles would relatively remain the same but coined to suit the existing and available set up for the modern day hence, bringing on board improved and efficient management systems to the existing organizations. With time, more sophisticated and unique techniques would evolve and ensure that management befits the digital era that the world seems to adopt. Therefore, ensuring that organizations get good leadership that would ensure that they run smoothly on increased profit margins as they take good care of their employees.

Works Cited

Agarwal, R D. Organization and Management. Tata McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Chiu, Y C. An Introduction to the History of Project Management: From the Earliest Times to A.d. 1900. Eburon, 2010.
Cole, G A. Management Theory and Practice. Thomson Learning, 2004.
Daft, Richard L, and Dorothy Marcic. Understanding Management. 2016.
Gross, James A, and Lance A. Compa. Human Rights in Labor and Employment Relations: International and Domestic Perspectives. Labor and Employment Relations Assn., U of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009.
Hales, Colin. Managing Through Organisation: The Management Process, Forms of Organization, and the Work of Managers. Business P, 2001.
Haslam, S A. Psychology in Organizations: The Social Identity Approach. Sage Publications, 2004.
Hole, James. Essay on History and Management: Essay Hist Management. Taylor and Francis, 2013.
Josien, Laurent S. Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Orientation: A Contingency Approach. Louisiana Tech U, 2000.
Kahl, Steven J, et al. History and Strategy. Emerald, 2012.
Kessler, Eric H. Management Theory in Action: Real-world Lessons for Walking the Talk. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Morgan, Gareth. Images of Organization. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1998.
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Sheldrake, John. Management Theory. Thomson, 2003.

Something to Remember in Essay on My School Life

School Years, The Beautiful

Where happiness goes with sadness, first love paces with first frustration, new achievements come hand by hand with new descents, there school years begin. They are one of the most wonderful in lives of millions of people, no matter how negative or positive they are.

Every school aims at education young individuals not only in terms of academic subjects, but also in terms of establishing right moral principles and strengthening of inner spirits. And this is a whole sackful of memories and remembrances!

Educational process is rather time-taking and sometimes even painful, but studying has never been easy. However, everyone must go through it, so school memories are always rich. No matter what kind of memories they are – good or bad – all of them are worth mentioning in a school life essay!

Topical Scope for School Life Essays

Basically, you can write upon whatever you want. Everything related to school years can be used as a great topic for an interesting essay.

Want to dwell upon your first love? Do it! Care so speak about a favorite subject or relations with teachers? You are welcome! Extracurricular activities and even food a school canteen can easily become topics for school life essays! The only thing, which is needed, is to write a genuine and captivating piece. Topic here is less important than style, manner of narration and a general slant.

In order to come up with a classy school life essay, heed the following advices and you will succeed:

  • Describe a Memorable Experience of Yours. Pick up an event, person or any other issue which impressed you a lot during studying at school. If a certain topic will be interesting for you to write – it will be interesting for others to read!
  • Describe Your Favorite Thing about School. This is the easiest way to write an essay on school years. Just take a thing you like about school the most and just describe it. Given you do everything right – you will pay less efforts, but suggest a great piece!
  • Describe the Thing You Liked the Least. This is also a great thing to do – to describe some sad school experience, express your personal feeling and come up with a real school drama. Playing on contrasts is also a great idea!
  • Make it funny. Being funny in a school life essay is natural. Moreover, it is almost a must-have. Pinches of sarcasm and irony will also be at hand. All in all, school is a fun, no matter what!

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Legendary Bodleian Library and Its Founder Essay Sample

Being the second biggest after the British Book Depository, the Bodleian Library in Oxford is one of the most world-famous book collections.  Along with the Vatican Library this reading room of Oxford University has the title of the oldest library in Europe. It is currently situated in five large-scale buildings and has many branches and offices. The library was founded by Sir Thomas Bodley, who played a greater role in the establishment and development of the Oxford University in general and the library in particular.

It was Sir Bodley, who offered his own money for the library renovation back in 1598. And it was him the poets and writers of the Oxford University, praising in their works for his contribution. So, who was the man called the Mycenas and Ptolemy of his age?

Thomas Bodley was the son of an Exeter merchant and Protestant. When Mary I ascends the throne of England, he preferred to leave the country and move to the house of Calvinism and Reformation – Geneva. Thomas Bodley has received the primary education from legendary John Calvin, and after that, Thomas moved to Oxford to continue his studies. As the Fellow of Merton, he lectured in Greek and promoted Hebrew.

In virtue of traveling on the Continent Boldey has improved his knowledge of Italian, French and Spanish, the great part of his four-year traveling remains in the Bodleian library — his Spanish copy of the Girolamo Franzini’s guidebook to Rome. His fellowship at Merton was over in 1586 on his marriage, and two years later he went to the United Provinces as envoy. Anglo-Dutch relationships were strained at that time, and Sir Bodley resigned from all the State employments in 1597. Yet his personal inclination and public expectation were the reason he kept seeking for other ways to be the profitable part of the community. After some time Thomas Bodley threw his forces and enthusiasm for the neglected Oxford library.

What about the history of the library before Sir Thomas? It was Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester, who founded the first Oxford library, and for quite a while it was housed in a small room next to church St Mary the Virgin. After the generous donation from Humfrey, Duke of Gloucester that resulted in 279 rare manuscripts being added to the library between 1439 and 1444 the library was moved to a bigger library room. It was built over the Divinity School, and the building was over in 1488. In 60 years, when Sir Bodley has come to Magdalen College, the library room was already neglected.

In 1598 as Bodley left his diplomatic service, he started working on the renovation and reviving of the library. In his letter to the Vice-Chancellor he promised to take all the costs and efforts on his own – Bodley believed his leisure, education, friends and money would bring him success. And it seems like he really succeeded in his noble mission.

He started from the very beginning – there was a group of six people to inspect the renovated library room. The changes in the interior were inspired by the library of Bodley’s  friend Henry Savile, Warden of Merton. Craving for the truly university-based library, he repaired the roof, paneled the ceiling of the new library room with the arms of the University and filled it with bookcases and tables. In 1600 when all the building was done, Sir Bodley switched from constructing the great place for those seeking knowledge to actually fill the shelves of the library with books.

In five years, due to Bodley’s talent to encourage the benefactions he had about £1,700 – the money donated by both famous people of that age and smaller ones. The library had a nice register book where all the contributors were listed. Kept on the display, it was the best way to remember the tiniest gift and to please those who contributed to the library – simple psychology, but it worked. The money received in this way Bodley spent on hiring two London booksellers, John Norton and John Bill, and on buying some of the new books.

The wide range of book procurement for the library was based on numerous donations from friends and contacts of the Mycenas of his time. Several hundreds of priceless medieval manuscripts transferred to the Bodleian Library were one of the most notable gifts. In fact, Bodley went far beyond the needs of the Oxford University curriculum – he encouraged the addition of books in other languages such as Persian, Arab, Turkish and Syrian. While there was no one in Oxford to read them, Bodley was sure they would be useful in future.

On 8 November 1602 the library was open to public, and soon scholars were traveling all over the Europe just to study here. Thomas James, young scholar with the same background as Bodley, was chosen to be the first bookkeeper at the Bodleian Library and sort of the right hand for the famous executant. In fact, James helped to realize his vision of the library as the ornament of the University and great source of knowledge for people from all over the world. The extensive correspondence between these two shows all kinds of directions concerning the library and all the administrative issues James received from Bodley. Covering the time period between 1599 and 1613, these letters tell us about the production of their first catalogue, Bodley’s endowment of the library in 1608 and a lot more – it is an epistolary reflection of the majesty and significance the Bodleian Library earned with years.

After Sir Thomas Bodley died the library was governed by the Curators and administered by the Oxford University. James continued as the Librarian – he kept buying more books and working on new catalogue until 1620. After that the library expanded the second time – this was the beginning of the continuous growth of this science center at the heart of the University.