How to Write a Critical Precis

If you hear about precis for the first time, then this article is definitely for you. Check out a brief guide how to write a critical precis and discover a perfect way to become on top of the class.

What Is a Critical Precis?

A critical precis is a summary of a passage with no personal evaluation of the ideas. It should be clear and concise. This assignment is perfect to evaluate student’s skills to highlight and summarize the core essence of a text. You should present the main points of a text, its structure, its meaning, but without giving your personal opinion on the ideas.

Avoid Main Pitfalls

If you want to write a good critical precis, be careful and follow these ‘NO’ rules:

  • Do not write a precis in a complicated language
  • Do not use the first person
  • Do not copy and paste the sentences from the original text
  • Do not add facts or ideas that are not presented in the original
  • Do not give your opinion

These are the main pitfalls that prevent students from getting the highest grades, so be really careful! If you want a professional to check your precis, ask us. In a few seconds we will check your assignment.

How to Write a Critical Precis

Before you get down to a critical precis make sure you do not misunderstand it for re-writing. You need to critically summarize the content of the original. To provide a good critical precis follow these 10 easy steps:

  1. Read the text thoroughly
  2. Jot down the main points and arguments while reading
  3. Find the evidence to the main points you have specified
  4. Make sure you understand all definitions
  5. Determine what the author appeals to
  6. Restate the author’s thesis
  7. Write a summary of each paragraph/section of a work
  8. Re-read the original and compare it with your precis
  9. Check your paper for grammar and spelling mistakes
  10. Check your paper for clarity and coherence

In case you have troubles proofreading your precis, do not hesitate to turn to our editors for help. They are professionals and can deal with any problem.

Structure Your Critical Precis

When writing a critical precis, structure your paper into an introduction, body, and conclusion.

  1. Introduction

An introduction consists of 1-2 sentences including the author’s name, the title, the date of publishing of the original, the author’s thesis presented with power verbs like ‘explains’, ‘proves’ etc.

  1. Body

It is a summary of each paragraph. You provide the main points, the author’s evidence and their opinion on the issue. Remember, that you should not interpret the author’s arguments and provide an opinion of your own.

  1. Conclusion

In the final part you restate the main idea and summarize the points covered in the body. Remember not to use any personal evaluation of the original piece.

Tips to Make Your Critical Precis Perfect

To demonstrate your critical skills, ability to highlight and summarize the essential information, and show your writing skills to a professor, follow these tips to get the top grades:

  • Use simple language

Do not complicate your style and language too much. Write in a simple language that is easy to understand.

  • Be concise

The gist of the assignment is to convey the core essence of a test in a brief summary. In other words, there should be no unnecessary details – the essential details only. For this reason, avoid repetitions and do not beat around the bush.

  • Sound objective

It has already been mentioned, but once again – do not provide your personal opinion in a precis. You should only presents the author’s arguments and ideas.

  • Make your writing coherent

Structure your precis, as it makes it easy to read and perceive. Demonstrate the logical interconnection of the author’s ideas.

  • Check your work for mistakes

Make sure you proofread your work for grammar, spelling and punctuation mistakes. Remember to check the content as well. The facts, figures, and dates you address should be used correctly.

Now it is time to get down to your critical precis. Follow the tips. If you still want to ask some questions, have no doubts and contact our service, as we will cover any questions you have. We can help you with a critical precis you are struggling with.

How to Overcome Writer’s Block: Seven Steps

Almost every writer on the planet has faced a huge problem, at least once. Sometimes you just don’t have any words to write; your head becomes completely empty, so you just sit staring at the screen, and feeling frustrated like never before. Once again, if you have such a problem, you’re not alone. Everyone has to overcome writer’s block, and we want to help you with simple tips. We asked a few successful writers with many years of experience in writing thrillers, horrors, and historical novels. Follow these seven steps, and you’ll surely back on track!

  1. Stop writing and switch to any other creative activity. The point is that your brain gets tired of monotonous work, so you have to kick start it with new creative tasks. Try painting, scrapbooking, whatever you like. You can write poetry, or build something in your backyard. Sometimes it’s enough to just switch between different projects. Your brain will take a breath of fresh air and your creativity will come back.
  2. Try freewriting. Every day, write anything that comes to your mind for at least 15 minutes. Forget about style or punctuation; just write any random phrases on any topics. The main rule here is to forget about any rules. Don’t try to make a good text, switch subjects any time you like. You’ll get rid of frustration, put your random thoughts on the paper, and so free some space for new ideas. If you’re working on a book, such a practice can give you some ideas for your further work. We suggest you doing it every day, and you’ll see wonderful results in a week.
  3. You got to move! Maybe you’d never thought of it, but when your body moves, your brain also starts working faster. Practice yoga, lift weights, go for a run, or dance – do whatever you like to make your body get more oxygen. You can also try meditation – it’s a nice way to get relaxed and focused. Physical exercises will help your brain get rid of unnecessary thoughts. You will feel better, and your creativity will increase. Just take your time, move, and then get back to work.
  4. No distractions. Social media and mobile phones may take too much attention. If you found yourself checking your smartphone every ten minutes, just turn it off. Unplug the internet cable, if the temptation is too strong. If writing is your job, you have to take it responsively. Spend a few hours just writing, without any unnecessary thoughts and actions. Let’s be honest, you can check your newsfeed or watch cute pictures of cats after your work is done. Keep your working place clean, since a cluttered desk isn’t a good environment for productive work.
  5. Write in the morning. When you dream, your brainwave pattern is in so-called Theta mode. It keeps working in the same way after you woke up. Some writers note that they wrote their best works early in the morning. Of course, not everyone is able to wake up at 5:00 AM, but try to wake up earlier.
  6. Write while you sleep. When we sleep, our subconscious minds keep working. If you’re stuck on some difficult writing, think about it before you go to sleep. Your brain will think about it, and you may be surprised when, in the morning, you’ll wake up with a fresh creative solution.
  7. Drink a Glass of Water. When nothing else helps, you can try the best method that removes writer’s block. Many writers state that this psychological practice helps them in the most difficult situations. Take a glass of water and talk to it. What is your intent? For example, say: “My intent is to write a killing article tomorrow. I want to write a creative text which will impress any reader, and I want to do it easily. I want to complete all my tasks and then sleep with wonderful dreams.” After these magic words, drink a half of the water and go to sleep. As soon as you woke up, drink another half, and start writing. Try not to do anything else, just follow this strict sequence of actions. Maybe such a technique looks a bit weird, but you must try it because it works!

Follow our simple tips, and you will see that writer’s block is just a minor problem that can be easily solved. Don’t worry, and write your brilliant texts!

Essay on Article Chandra Levy’s Father Admits He Misdirected the Court

On Tuesday, Chandra Levy’s father testified about his attempts to find his missed daughter and admitted that he gave false testimonies back in 2002. Chandra Levy was a Washington intern. In 2002, she was missed and then found slain. According to her father, he intentionally misdirected the court in order to worsen the court judgment concerning former U.S. Rep. Gary Condit.

29-years old Salvadoran Ingmar Guandique is convicted of killing Levy. He already has been arrested for attacking several women in Rock Creek Park. Guandique also admitted he attacked Levy.

According to prosecutors, Chandra Levy had an affair with Gary Condit, which was a reason why he was suspected first. Now, police no longer believe Condit was involved in the murder.

On Tuesday, Chandra Levy’s father, Robert Levy, stated that he realized his daughter had an affair with Condit a couple days before she was missed. He has found many calls to the office of Condit in Chandra’s cell phone bill.

According to Levy, he was sure that Condit killed his daughter, but now he believes it was Ingmar Guandique who committed the crime.
During the cross-examination, Levy admitted that he intentionally pushed the court to downplay the fact that Chandra could be attacked while she was jogging in Rock Creek Park.

Levy said that Chandra’s family was sure that Condit was guilty, since they didn’t know about Guandique. Superior Court Judge Gerald Fisher ordered Levy’s earlier answers removed from the record.

According to Levy, his daughter never went jogging in Rock Creek Park alone, but on Tuesday he changed his testimonials and said that she could go there, since she loved running outdoors.

In 2002, he said that his daughter planned to marry Condit in five years. On Tuesday, Levy denied this statement, saying that he didn’t know about such a plan.
At the trial, Levy also said that members of Chandra’s family were mad at Condit, so he wanted to worsen the court’s decision concerning him.
According to Levy, his calls to the FBI haven’t produced any results for a few days, so he felt very bad about it, and it took many efforts to convince police his daughter was missing.

Two women testified against Guandique, saying that he attacked them in Rock Creek Park. They both were jogging there, at the same time when Levy’s parents have been waiting for her to come back. Aspects of these attacks were similar.
In 2001, Chandra Levy went missing, and a year after, her remains were found in the same place. According to Christy Wiegand, Guandique attacked her in the exact same place back in July 2001.

Prosecutors noted that details of Levy’s disappearance are similar to those of the attack of Guandique on Wiegand, as well as on Halle Shilling, another jogger from Rock Creek Park. Halle Shilling was attacked in May 2001. Now Guandique is serving a stretch in prison. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison for the assault. However, in 2001, police were focused on Condit, so they haven’t paid any attention to Guandique.

Christy Wiegand lives in Pittsburgh. She told that she has been jogging with her future husband. He ran faster, so he was far ahead of her. She passed through Guandique and then noticed him following her. He jumped on Wiegand and dragged her into bushes.

Wiegand told that she was going to struggle, but Guandique covered her mouth, so nobody could hear her screaming for help. After this, he threatened her with a knife, so Wiegand stopped her attempts to escape, and it saved her life.
A few hours after the attack, police caught Guandique.

Essay on Article Bob Barker Meets with Cherokees and Talks about Bears

Bob Barker is one of the most popular game show hosts in American history. He started his career in 1950’s, hosting his own radio show, and had huge success during the next few decades, becoming a host of incredibly popular The Price Is Right on CBS. This daytime show is the longest-running show in a history of American television, which gathered millions of viewers until 2007.

Barker is also a well-known fighter for animal rights. In 2009, on July 28, he spoke about animal rights once again, on the meeting with members of the Tribal Council for the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Barker noted awful conditions under which captive bears live in North Carolina. Some of them spend their lives in cages and concrete pits, serving as a decoy for tourists. Barker already was banned from visiting two of these roadside zoos, but he had a chance to see another one, in Cherokee. Barker met with Michel Hicks, the Principal Chief of the Eastern Band. He asked Hicks to release captive bears, so they could be transported to California. A sanctuary in California has all necessary conditions for bears, so PETA is going to monitor this issue, waiting for bears to be retired.

It’s hard to imagine how these bears live their lives, but the Eastern Band hasn’t made any promises. In Cherokee legends, black bears keep human dreams. Now we hope that their dreams of freedom will become true.

MLA In-Text Citations: Basic Rules

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook contains a lot of information on new standards for in-text citations, the Works Cited Page, and footnotes. You can figure out how to write references in the chapter 6 of the Handbook, as well as in the chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual. There are many examples of proper citations, and you can check these sources for more detailed information. In turn, we decided to write a quick guide for you, so you could understand basic principles of MLA citations.

MLA Basics

MLA style implies parenthetical citations within the text. Thus, every time you need to include a direct quote from a certain work, as well as when you paraphrase it, or refer to some ideas expressed in this work, you have to include necessary information in parentheses.

  • Information written in parentheses depends on the type of the source (book, website, DVD, etc.), and on how this source is listed in the Works Cited.
  • Make sure that all sources cited in the text are included in the Works Cited list. If you use some signal phrases or words, make sure that this thing is the first information from the left in a corresponding section of the Works Cited.

Author-Page Style

MLA in-text citations are based on the method known as the author-page style. According to this style, you have to place the author’s last name in parentheses, along with the page number. More detailed information is written only in the Works Cited list. Not only can you write the author’s name in parentheses, but also use it in the signal phrase. In this case, parentheses contain only the page number. Don’t write the page number anywhere in the text, but in parentheses. Here are some examples:

James Smith stated: “donec sodales, nulla at maximus dapibus, leo metus blandit velit, eu interdum magna massa vel ante” (156).

“Donec sodales, nulla at maximus dapibus, leo metus blandit velit, eu interdum magna massa vel ante” (Smith 156).

Both examples above show correct structure of the quote, since both of them provide information about the author, and help readers find necessary page. If your readers want to get more information, they can go to the Works Cited page, and find Smith in the list. There they will see more detailed data:

Smith, James. The Title of the Book. Publisher, 2003.

Print Sources

Citing print sources, such as books, journals, newspapers, and magazines, you can use a signal word or phrase. As a rule, such phrases include the author’s name. However, if you use a signal phrase, you don’t need to include this information in parentheses.

According to Smith, “donec sodales, nulla at maximus dapibus, leo metus blandit velit, eu interdum magna massa vel ante” (123).

Obviously, this in-text citation must be related to the entry that begins with Smith. Don’t forget that we are talking about the first word from the left in the Works Cited:

Smith, James. The Title of the Book. Publisher, 2003.

Corporate Authors

Some works may have corporate authors. In this case you should use the name of the corporation instead of the particular author, along with the page number. In order to make your text easier for readers, we also suggest you to use abbreviations, so they won’t need to read long citations in parentheses, being focused on your main text.

Unknown Authors

If the author of the source is unknown, you must use a short form of the title instead of the name. If this source is relatively short (like an article), then the title must be written in quotation marks. Longer works, such as books, TV series, or websites, are italicized. If the page number is available, you must include it.

“Aliquam molestie et enim ullamcorper viverra. Donec euismod at turpis eget mattis. Donec maximus tortor ac lorem tristique pharetra. Etiam vitae viverra orci. Duis vel mauris auctor, bibendum tellus sit amet, luctus nisi” (“Texts in Latin”).

In this case, readers don’t know the author of the source, but they are able to find this source in the Works Cited, because they have the shortened title of the article. Obviously, the title of such an article will be the first information that appears on the left side of a corresponding entry in the Works Cited. This title is written in quotation marks, like in the example below:

“Texts in Latin for College Students and Everyone Else.” The Title of the Source. 2003. http://www.source.link. Accessed 13 Apr. 2006.

Now we clarified some basic features of in-text citations according to MLA style. The main thing is that these citations help readers verify your thoughts on a certain source, and use this information in their own works.

Literary and Classic Works with Multiple Editions

Names of authors and page numbers may be not the only information necessary to find a source. A lot of classic works were published in different editions, so you have to provide readers with additional data. In this case, you have to include the page number, and the number of a particular edition. Don’t forget to include this information in the Works Cited list. This number must be separated from the page number with a semicolon. You may also add another data, depending on peculiarities of your source. It may be chapter (ch.), book (bk.), paragraph (par.), volume (vol.), section (sec.), or part (pt.).

Authors with Same Last Names

What you should do, if you’re using citations from different authors who have same last names? Obviously, you will need to include more information in parentheses. Specify both authors’ initials, or even their full names, in case these authors have same initials.

Some authors state that Latin is a dead language (J. Smith 23), while others claim that it’s an integral part of scientific terminology (A. Smith 54).

Works with Multiple Authors

If a cited source has two or more authors, you have to specify their last names in parentheses, or in the signal phrase:

“Latin is an ancient language that is no longer used for communication” (Smith and Brown 14).

According to Smith and Brown, “Latin is an ancient language that is no longer used for communication” (14)

More detailed information is in the Works Cited:

Smith, James, and John Brown. “The Title of the Article.” The Title of the Journal, vol.120, no. 3, Fall 2003, pp. 15-17. JSTOR, doi:43.789/rep.654.879.2411

In case a work is written by more than two authors, write only the last name of the first author in parentheses, replacing other names with a short abbreviation “et al.” Such an abbreviation is used both in the text, and in the Works Cited list.

Multiple Works of the Same Author

In case you have to cite several works written by the same author, you can include short titles in parentheses. If your source is a long work, such as a book, write its short title in italics. Shorter sources are written in quotation marks.

According to Smith, “Latin is an ancient language that is no longer used for communication” (First Book 23). At the same time, he states that “it’s an integral part of scientific terminology” (Second Book 45).

If the name of the author isn’t mentioned in a signal phrase, you have to specify it in parentheses, before the short title of the source.

Multivolume Sources

If a source has several volumes, you must include the number of the volume, followed by page numbers. First you write the number of the volume, put a colon, a space, and write page numbers.

The Bible

There are a lot of versions of the Bible, so you have to make sure that your readers will know which version is used in your research. Thus, write the full title of this version in italics. Then write the title of the book from the Bible (this title isn’t italicized). After this, write the number of a chapter and a verse. If you cite the same version of the Bible further, you don’t have to put the title in parentheses again.

Indirect Sources

Sometimes you have to cite an indirect source. In other words, it’s a quote of a certain source mentioned in another source. In this case you have to use the “qtd.” abbreviation, so your readers could understand what source was used by you.

According to Brown, “donec sodales, nulla at maximus dapibus, leo metus blandit velit, eu interdum magna massa vel ante” (qtd. In Smith 345).

We also suggest you to use direct sources, since this approach looks more serious, and shows your responsibility.

Web Sources and Other Non-Print Sources

As the internet develops, students more often use only online sources in their work. Of course, there are many online sources that cannot be used for researches, since the internet has some problems with validation of information. At the same time, there are many qualitative sources and databases used by students of various universities around the world. As in case of printed sources, in-text citations of online sources must refer to the Works Cited section.

Many students face difficulties trying to write in-text parenthetical citation for online sources. The problem is that such sources don’t have page numbers. The good thing is that usually you don’t need to include parenthetical citations for such a kind of sources at all. Just follow a few simple rules:

  • Include the first type of information from the Works Cited entry. It may be a name of the author, or website, or article.
  • You don’t have to include page numbers, or paragraph numbers.
  • Of course, you have to help your readers find a source in the Works Cited list, so we suggest you to use signal phrases with names of websites. Don’t include URLs in your text, it will only distract readers. You can use parts of URLs, for example, nytimes.com instead of http://www.nytimes.com/source_link.

Non-Print Sources

In the text, you can try to include only signal phrases. If you’re citing a movie, just mention the director’s name, and the title of the movie written in italics. All the specific information must be written in the Works Cited list.

Electronic Sources

The Title of the Source is very popular among internet users from all around the world. Its “The Title of the Article” was accessed by three million users in 2017 (Smith et al.).

Here the author’s last name is mentioned in parentheses, so it’s not a problem to find this source in the Works Cited list. As we mentioned above, “et al.” means “and others”:

Smith, James, et al. “The Title of the Article.” The Title of the Source, 13 Apr. 2017, www.source.link

You may use multiple citations in the same sentence. In this case, you have to write information about each source in parentheses, separating sources with a semicolon.

If you cite a media source, such as a movie, song, or podcast, you have to specify the time code. It consists of hours, minutes, and seconds, and it looks like this: (01:05:34-01:23:45).

Do You Need so Many Citations?

Ask yourself such a question, and maybe you’ll find out that some citations are unnecessary. If you’re writing a well-known quote, you don’t have to include a parenthetical citation. We also suggest you not to include citations for well-known facts. Thus, just take your time and think of your audience. For example, some facts may need citations for students, but not for graduated experts. However, consider specifics of your audience, and determine the average level of common knowledge.

Essay on Jungian Psychology and Theories of Drunvalo Melchizadek

Human genetic code consists of 44 chromosomes, divided into 22 pairs. Another two chromosomes determine our gender. However, some people may have more or less chromosomes, and there are many diseases determined by the number of chromosomes and other genetic abnormalities. What consequences such abnormalities lead to? How genetic code changes our bodies and consciousness? A well-known metaphysicist, Drunvalo Melchizadek tried to find some answers to these questions.

He stated that there are three types of humans, who perceive the same reality, but do it in three different ways. First type is characterized by a chromosome combination 42+2. They perceive the whole universe as a part of themselves. They cannot separate themselves from their environment, and feel all of creation as an energy that takes different forms. Like cells of a single body, they are parts of the same consciousness. Some native tribes in Australia and Africa used to live this way. Another type is determined by formula 44+2. This is a normal genetic type, and according to Melchizadek, we are the most dangerous and unstable type of human beings. These two chromosomes ruin all balance and make normal people dangerous to nature and even to themselves. However, Melchizadek points out the importance of such a kind of people, who are a transitional stage between 42+2, and 46+2 types.

Perception of the whole of creation as one correlates with many spiritual beliefs. The whole reality is just a kind of a big body, where people are cells. However, in the modern world, there are no people with required genetic formula.

According to Melchizadek, normal people with 44 chromosomes are unstable. He considers this genetic type as a step on the road to 46+2 formula. We have an individual consciousness, but we cannot collaborate with each other effectively. Our humanity suffers from wars, ignorance, and violence of any kind. This theory states that all this evil is just a result of our genetic code, which creates an imbalance in our perception. Melchizadek states that the only way out of this state is a further genetic evolution.

The next evolutionary step is represented by genetic formula 46+2. Melchizadek states that this kind of people will represent a mass of individuals who also are able to function as one. It’s a unity of separated beings.

Melchizadek builds his theory based on the “unity consciousness”. He draws an analogy with cells in human body, where every cell has its particular function, but all cells together are just details of a single being. He says that this type of organization will help us get rid of misunderstanding, wars, and violence. In his opinion, the cell structure of humanity is the most effective life form, and the highest stage in the evolution.

Christians may interpret such a theory according to Christian traditions. In this case, people become closer to God or Christ. All people are just parts of the body of Christ, and Christ is an organism as a whole. Therefore, people get global understanding of the universe, so there is no violence, pain, or ignorance no more. Another Christians tend to interpret such a theory as the Kingdom of Heaven, the final structure and the main purpose of any existence.

There is a big question, which is how we should move from 44+2 to 46+2? This question implies understanding of how we can jump from our stage of imperfect human beings to a new stage, where we are something much greater and smarter. We analyzed elements of Jungian psychology, and decided to illustrate such an issue on the example of the Tool song, which is called “Forty-Six & 2”.

Maynard builds his thoughts based on the concept of changes that come “through my shadow”. According to Jungian psychology, our minds are separated on two parts, which are the shadow and the ego (animus and anima).

This theory states that males have feminine traits (anima), which are suppressed deeply in our psychological structure. Just like males, females have certain muscular traits (animus) inside their psychological structure. Even though these things are buried deeply in our subconscious, they have an impact on our thoughts and actions all the time. First of all, we are always looking for an opportunity to project these traits on somebody else. Men are trying to project their anima on women, and vice versa. This process is exactly what determines our feeling of “love at the first sight”. We shouldn’t know a person good to project these traits on him or her, since animus and anima automatically form our feelings. These mystique structures also often appear in our dreams, as male or female guiding figures. We can also say that, in the opposite sex, we search for such things that we suppress in ourselves.

On the other hand, we all have the ego, which is a conscious part of our minds. We build this structure during our lives, at the same time getting rid of unnecessary tendencies that we consider “not ourselves”. All these rejected things form another part of our consciousness, which is called counter-ego.

When we meet a person who represents some of our rejected values, traits, and feelings, we often feel anxiousness, annoyance, or anger. In our dreams, these shadow structures often appear in the form of a person of the opposite gender. The shadow has a lot of power over us, since it’s critical to our personal development, and it is capable of affecting our self-esteem and actions. The shadow consists of all things that we fear or try to ignore. It also may suggest us, what we must change about ourselves, to move forward.

Maynard points out the importance of embracing this shadow part of our nature, in order to move on the next stage of evolution. He writes about accepting all rejected traits and learning how to live with them in peace. Describing such a difficult process, he uses such words as “kill”, “die”, and “cry”, as well as “learn”, “grow”, and “move”.

Many metaphysical theories were reflected in New Age art. Tool band uses these theories and creates many deep songs, such as “Schism”, “Stinkfist”, “Parabola”, and “Pushit”. This band never set easy understanding as their main goal, paying special attention to sophisticated lyrics, and even symbolic album artworks. We already mentioned their song “Forty-Six & Two”, so let’s take a closer look at the Aenima album and its cover. The first thing we see is a light burst at the center of the picture, there are also many eyes looking at you. Tool once again said exactly what they mean, without saying anything particular. They push us to look wider, to look at something that is inaccessible for those eyes. Talking about the psychological shadow, this cover represents how we understand a part of it, without access to the shadow as a whole. This band pushes us to open the box and discover all hidden truth recorded on the CD.

Maynard suggests to “listen to muscle memory”, and to try to find a way to our hidden personalities. Thing that are hidden in our shadows are obvious and simple. We just need to step inside this shadow and keep our eyes wide open, to not miss a thing.

Hussan Al-Banna and the Muslim Brotherhood Essay

During the last 80 years, the Muslim Brotherhood, also known as the Society of Muslim Brothers, played a significant role in Egyptian politics. This society was established in 1928, in Ismailia. Hassan al-Banna defined their goal as a resumption of the Caliphate. They focused on implementing Sharia law as the main law for everyone. This movement quickly spread from Egypt to other Islamic states, where the Muslim Brothers gained a significant political power. As for Egypt, this society created a lot of challenges for the modern country.

Hassan al-Banna was born in Al-Behaira, Egypt, in 1906. He was raised in a traditional middle-class family. His father was an imam; he worked as an instructor in the Hanbali rite. He also wrote many books about Islam, and was teaching at the local madrasah. Along with that, he owned his business. In his shop, he sold phonographs and repaired watches. Even though he and his wife had certain property, they have never been rich; moreover, they constantly struggled for life and tried to make things work. In 1924, they moved to Cairo and realized that Islamic education is no longer as important in the capital, and small business cannot compete with big corporations anymore.

Hassan al-Banna’s religious and leadership skills developed during the early childhood. When he was 12 years old, he joined the Sufi order. At the age of thirteen, he was involved in revolution against British rule, which took place in 1919. A year after, he memorized Quran. He always was interested in the most xenophobic and extremist features of Islam. Especially, he was focused on women’s rights. Since the secondary school, he and his friends organized a number of events devoted to Islamic issues. They discussed a Middle East conflict, Islamic laws and British impact. Their rhetoric was a part of the reaction to the collapse of the Muslim Caliphate, as well as to the end of the Ottoman Empire, and the British occupation. They wanted to replace Western values with traditional Arab laws, and strengthen Islam in all aspects of Egyptian life.

In Cairo, al-Banna joined a number of Islamic educational organizations. A short time later, he realized that such a peaceful kind of activity cannot bring the power of Islam back. He organized people from different universities and organized a number of activities in public places. Students started praying in mosques an in front of people on streets. They wanted to make Islam a part of a public life again, and involve more people in such a process.

In 1927, he graduated and started teaching grammar in a small town. Along with his school, this town also hosted headquarters of a huge European corporation. Along with major European community, a lot of poor Muslim workers worked in the Suez Canal Company, and they formed a strong basis for al-Banna’s ideas. He criticized European lifestyle, saying that liberal laws are dangerous and unacceptable for Muslims. In 1928, his first followers inspired him to create the Society of the Muslim Brethren.

Hassan al-Banna, just like many other Muslims, considered the end of the Caliphate as a catastrophe of Muslim civilization, and they haven’t found anything better than blaming Western countries for that. Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in order to strike back and stop Western influence on Egypt. However, there were a lot of such organizations in Egypt, and many people pointed out the significance of following Sharia laws and reforming moral base of Egypt. The Brotherhood considered Islam as not just religious rules and moral principles, but as a whole lifestyle, therefore focusing its members on political and social aspects of Islam. Every member should be personally engaged in religion and in the process of reformation. They said that their only leader is Allah, and their only constitution is Quran. They openly promoted Jihad as the only way of life, and the death for Allah as the only reason to live. Al-Banna considered fundamental Islam as the only right kind of Islam, arguing that many Muslims are influenced by Western civilization, and Islam must dominate the social life of all Arabs.

Obviously, despite the religious background, the Brotherhood was a social and political movement. They created different social incentives in order to protect working class from foreign business, especially major monopolies. They participated in building hospitals, schools, and other social institutions.

Al-Banna set the key goals of the Brotherhood as fighting against Western lifestyle, and returning traditional Islamic values. He considered ancient rules as the only right way for Arabic society, so he addressed his speeches to wide audience of teachers, medics, social workers, and managers. He pointed out such sensitive issues as colonialism, inequality, Islamic nationalism and Middle East conflict. Along with it, he was quite sympathetic to the radical European ideologies, such as fascism and Marxism.

Number of members of al-Banna’s organization grew from 800 in 1936, up to 200,000 in 1938. The main reason was a situation in Palestine. The Brotherhood kept building social institutions and educating people about Islam. In later 1930’s, there were more than 500,000 members of the Brotherhood. More and more people registered in more than 2,000 branches in different Arab countries. Robin Hallett notes that the success of the Brotherhood was determined by Pan-Islamic ideology. Finally, their headquarters become a center of Islamic world. Students and activists from different countries met in Cairo, implementing new incentives and strategies. In 1940, there were more than a million members of the Brotherhood; this organization opened new offices in Transjordan, Lebanon and Syria.

If in the early 1930’s al-Banna was focused on social issues and religious revivalism, now he paid all his attention to the restoration of the Caliphate. He stated that this goal can be achieved only through Jihad, which attracted even more members. Al-Banna’s speeches were focused on hell and pain for sinners and heretics. He said that Muslims must return to their roots and follow all rues of Quran. His key thesis was Jihad against Kafir (non-Muslim people), as well as establishment of a new Caliphate. He also expressed all his ideas in a dissertation called “The Way of Jihad”.

First of all, al-Banna considered Jihad as a part of a defensive strategy. He said that Jihad will protect Muslims and embrace Islam. According to al-Banna, Muslim community was constantly attacked by Western world, so they needed to strike back and get rid of “unbelievers” who influenced many Muslim countries. He paid special attention to individual engagement, saying that every Muslim must make his contribution to Jihad, using all possible sources. He said that God will give Muslims a sign, so they could understand when and how their goal will be accomplished.

In his Five Tracts of Hassan al-Banna, he writes about Hanafi-rules and points out the significance of Jihad in all forms. He writes that every Muslim must put maximal effort in Jihad, killing the unbelievers, beating and raping them, destroying their homes and churches. He states that Muslims should fight the unbelievers right after the invitation to accept Islam as the only right religion, killing them, even if they don’t fight back.

Al-Banna started his terrorist activity during the events of 1936-1939 years in Palestine, which were called the Arab revolt. At the same time, a supreme leader of Muslims, Grand Mufti Hajj Amin al-Husseini, called all Muslims for Jihad against Jews and Britain. The Brotherhood organized an underground network of members who stole weapons, provided terrorist activity and formed assassination squads. They had many supporters in the police and army, who supported their terrorist activity and provided them with necessary information.

Many documents from American, British, and Nazi German archives confirm that members of the Brotherhood actively collaborated with Nazis, agitating against Britain, organizing sabotage, and receiving aid from Nazis. They started collaborating during the 1930’s, and continued supporting each other during the World War II.

Nazis and the Brotherhood found common interests easily, since both of them wanted to destroy the Jews. At the same time, both of them realized that transformation of their ideas is impossible in a nation-state. These ideologies can be called somewhat anti-nationalist, since they have been looking for a bigger, universal community. For the Brotherhood, it was a community of Muslims, and for Nazis it was a master race. Collaboration between radical Muslims and Nazi Germany started as an underground chain of events, but then developed to the official stage. Members of the Brotherhood translated Mein Kampf, which in Arabic sounded like “My Jihad”. This fact made Muslims even closer to a Nazi ideology. Al-Banna’s followers also published a lot of other Nazi literature, translated Der Sturmer and shared anti-Semitic cartoons, where Jews were represented as demons and enemies of Allah.

When United Nations started considering the Palestinian issue, Amin al-Husseini and al-Banna rose up against the creation of Israel, even though the UN resolution included an Arab state besides the Jewish state. Al-Banna said about the world conspiracy ruled by Jews, and urged Muslims to kill Jews in Palestine.

In 1948, police found documents that illustrated how military wing of the Brotherhood, called “secret apparatus”, planed a series of assassinations and bombings. Some of these events took place later, and thirty two leaders of the Brotherhood were arrested.

In Egypt, Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha studied information about activity of the Brotherhood members, directed against Egyptian government. Considering the growing popularity of this organization, he banned it and included the Brotherhood in the list of outlawed groups, in 1948. Many members of the Brotherhood were arrested during next three weeks, and then, on December 28, young student Abdel Meguid Ahmed Hassan killed the Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha. Al-Banna immediately condemned this act, saying that terrorism is an unacceptable form of Jihad.

However, his words haven’t convinced the Egyptian government, so in 1949, al-Banna with his followers were in their headquarters in Cairo, waiting for a representative from the government. Al-Banna should meet Minister Zaki Ali Basha at 5 o’clock, on February 12. He waited for a few hours and then decided to take a taxi. Two men shot al-Banna seven times, and he died in a hospital.

A lot of Muslim Brothers were executed and imprisoned, but other members continued to spread their ideas in Egypt and other Arab countries. Sayyid Qutb became a new leader of this movement, stating that Quran approves any sorts of violence against unbelievers. He focused on fighting against non-Islamic countries where Muslims live. He said about importance of destroying Western values, and so formed an ideological basis for many radical Islamic groups, such as al Qaeda. He studied in the United States in 1949, often speaking about the American culture, and how dangerous it is for Muslims. Then he returned back in Egypt, where he led the Muslim Brotherhood and urged people to fight against non-Islamic countries. In 1964, many members of the Brotherhood were amnestied due to the President Gamal Nasser’s resolution. Right after that, he faced three assassination attempts from members of the Brotherhood. In 1966, almost all leaders of the organization were executed for anti-government activity. Many others tried to escape the country, but were arrested and imprisoned instead.

Next president of Egypt, Anwar-as-Sadat promised that he’s going to implement Sharia law as the main Egyptian law. Just like his predecessor, he released many members of the Muslim Brotherhood from prisons. This fact initiated a short-term peace between the Egyptian government and the Muslim Brotherhood, but this peace couldn’t last long. As soon as a peaceful agreement between Egypt and Israel was signed in 1979, the Muslim Brotherhood resumed their attempts to fight the government, since they still supported Palestinians, based on Pan-Islamic ideas. In 1981, Anwar Sadat was assassinated by the Muslim Brotherhood during the victory parade in Cairo.

Members of the Muslim Brotherhood joined many other terrorist organizations. Different Muslim unions supported different methods of Jihad, but all of them were united by the common goal. Such societies openly promote violence as a key to building an Islamic State, focusing on promotion of Islam among “infidels”, and on fighting against them as well. Nowadays the Muslim Brotherhood denies any involvement in terrorist activity, but most security organizations all over the world consider this union as an underground terrorist organization, or at least a supporter of terrorism. Despite that, the United States haven’t included the Muslim Brotherhood in the list of terrorist organizations, unlike HAMAS or IJG (Islamic Jihad Group).

We mentioned these two organizations, because their founders were members of the Muslim Brotherhood, promoting methods of extreme violence against non-Islamic governments and unbelievers. In 1976, Egyptian Parliamentary Elections led to formation of several groups based on the Muslim Brotherhood community. The reason is that Anwar Sadad never considered the Brotherhood a political structure, so members of this organization should run as members of the ruling party (it was called Arab Socialist Union), or as independent candidates. In total, members of the Muslim Brotherhood occupied 15 seats, six of them were also members of the ruling party, and nine of them were independents. Many members of the Brotherhood were resent that some brothers collaborate with the government, so the militant brothers decided to create several new organizations, such as Mukfirtiya, Jund Allah, Munnazamat al Jihad, and Al Takfir wa al Hijra. Translated in English, these names mean “Denouncers of Infidel”, “Soldiers of God”, “The Jihad Organization”, and “The Denunciation of Infidels and the Migration”, respectively.

The Islamic Jihad Group became one of the biggest organizations. It was founded by members of the Muslim Brotherhood, who weren’t satisfied by official responses of the Egyptian government to the Palestinian conflict. Generally, the Brotherhood was looking for the gradual development of the Islamic government, implementing more Islamic principles in politics. Many members of the organization didn’t like such a peaceful approach, considering terrorism as the only way to build an Islamic State. They found many like minds and founded the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.

Another terrorist organization, HAMAS, was founded by members of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1987. Their leader, Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, developed this movement as a wing of the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine. In 1988, they officially broke away from the Brotherhood, and in 2006 they won Palestinian Authority’s general legislative elections. Now it’s the biggest and the most powerful militant organization in Palestine. Their main goal is to destroy Israel, and build an Islamic State instead. They are well-known for a lot of violent acts, including suicide bombings.

Since members of the Muslim Brotherhood have been arrested and hunted in Egypt throughout its history, a lot of them have settled in Europe, America, Africa and Middle East. They are mostly focused on helping Palestinians and converting non-Muslims. On the one hand, the Brotherhood has changed its approaches, trying to present itself in a more peaceful context. Their leaders consider it necessary to gain more acceptance and influence in different countries. On the other hand, financial networks of the Brotherhood participate in funding and arming radical Islamic organizations all over the world. Members of this organization still promote the idea of the worldwide Islamic State, a Caliphate. This goal makes this organization appreciated by almost all Sunni terrorist organizations in the world.

Argumentative Essay on Gun Control: Quick Guide

Argumentative essay on gun control requires good preparation. This issue is widely debated in USA, and you need to provide qualitative evaluation of all arguments.

Features of Gun Control Essay Writing

There are a few topics so actively discussed that sometimes it’s hard to be objective, when it comes to essay writing. However, being objective is one of your most important goals. Of course, you need to represent your own point of view, but argumentative essay is impossible without facts that illustrate both viewpoints. Thus, you have to collect enough facts to explain pros and cons of gun control; essay should illustrate how you considered this issue and why you’ve chosen such a point.

You also need to choose a right title for gun control essay. It must reflect your topic and grab your readers’ attention. However, you must make sure that it’s not too long and is related to your key statement on this issue.

This issue is very sensitive. Recall events in Las Vegas in 2017, or in Colorado Theater, during “The Dark Knight Rises” movie. Such cases are horrifying and thus they raise a controversy and intense debates between people who are standing against Second Amendment and those who support it. In your essay about gun violence, you have to illustrate such a controversy by facts and quotes of politicians and law experts. As for the Second Amendment, gun control essay must consider this issue based only on proven legal sources.

The US Constitution says that nobody should infringe the right to keep and bear arms. On the other hand, the Supreme Court clearly states that this right shot be controlled by the government in any necessary way. To illustrate pros and cons of gun control, essay may include statistics. For example, about 80% of citizens don’t own firearms. On the other hand, 65% think that strict gun control laws would violate constitutional rights.

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A Few Steps to Writing a Bibliography

If you don’t know how to write a bibliography, don’t despair, because we have all necessary information for you. Just follow our simple rules!

How to Write a Bibliography: Quick Guide

Bibliography is a necessary part of most college papers. Every time you support your point with facts and quotes, you need to give your readers a chance to check out your sources and evaluate them. That’s why you need a bibliography, and that’s where problems appear. It’s not enough to just write a list of used books, websites and articles. There are certain rules for writing a bibliography.

Your references may be formalized in different ways, depending on the chosen style. Generally, there are three most common styles of formatting: MLA (Modern Language Association), CMS (Chicago Manual of Styles), and APA (American Psychological Association). There are also other styles, but we will look at the most popular ones.

These styles differ not only by the formatting rules, but also by purpose. For example, for scientific researches, you need to write bibliography APA style. On the other hand, if you’re writing on humanities, MLA style bibliography is the best choice. Some styles are more or less difficult. Most students consider MLA one of the simplest formats. The Chicago Manual of Style is much more complicated. Chosen style also determines how you will write your cover page and other features. For example, CMS requires running heads with the short version of the title, on every page.

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College Admission Essay: Important Features

College admission essay is different from the other writing tasks. It’s also quite different from other essay types, so we decided to write a quick guide.

How to Write a College Admission Essay

If you have already written a bunch of essays before, this task may seem simple for you, but we suggest you not to be blinded by its apparent simplicity. The truth is that this type of essay may require a lot of work to polish it, and present your strengths in the best way possible.

First of all, you need to think about your audience and what you consider most important about you. You can describe your life goals, experiences, achievements, challenges. Your need to represent your personality, so that your readers could understand why you’re a promising applicant for this college.

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